What sets your 200amp hour lithium battery from the rest... Lithium batteries stand apart from other battery chemistries due to their high energy density and low cost per cycle. However, "lithium battery" is an ambiguous term. There are about six common chemistries of lithium batteries, all with their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For renewable energy applications, the predominant chemistry is Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4). This chemistry has excellent safety, with great thermal stability, high current ratings, long cycle life, and tolerance to abuse.
Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) is an extremely stable lithium chemistry when compared to almost all other lithium chemistries. The battery is assembled with a naturally safe cathode material (iron phosphate). Compared to other lithium chemistries iron phosphate promotes a strong molecular bond, which withstands extreme charging conditions, prolongs cycle life, and maintains chemical integrity over many cycles. This is what gives these batteries their great thermal stability, long cycle life, and tolerance to abuse. LiFePO4 batteries are not prone to overheating, nor are they disposed to 'thermal runaway' and therefore do not over-heat or ignite when subjected to rigorous mishandling or harsh environmental conditions.
Unlike flooded lead acid and other battery chemistries, Lithium batteries do not vent dangerous gases such as hydrogen and oxygen. There's also no danger of exposure to caustic electrolytes such as sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide. In most cases, these batteries can be stored in confined areas without the risk of explosion and a properly designed system should not require active cooling or venting.
Lithium batteries are an assembly composed of many cells, like lead-acid batteries and many other battery types. Lead acid batteries have a nominal voltage of 2V/cell, whereas lithium battery cells have a nominal voltage of 3.2V. Therefore, to achieve a 12V battery you'll typically have four cells connected in a series. This will make the nominal voltage of a LiFePO4 12.8V. Eight cells connected in a series make a 24V battery with a nominal voltage of 25.6V and sixteen cells connected in a series make a 48V battery with a nominal voltage of 51.2V. These voltages work very well with your typical 12V, 24V, and 48V inverters.
Lithium batteries are often used to directly replace the lead-acid batteries because they have very similar charging voltages. A four cell LiFePO4 Battery (12.8V), will typically have a max charge voltage between 14.4-14.6V (depending on manufacturers recommendations). What's unique to a lithium battery is that they do not need an absorption charge or to be held in a constant voltage state for significant periods of time.
Typically, when the battery reaches the max charge voltage it no longer needs to be charged. The discharge characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries is also unique. During discharge, lithium batteries will maintain a much higher voltage than lead-acid batteries typically would under load. It's not uncommon for a lithium battery to only drop a few tenths of a volt from a full charge to 75% discharged. This can make It difficult to tell how much capacity has been used without battery monitoring equipment.
A significant advantage of lithium over lead-acid batteries is that they do not suffer from deficit cycling. Essentially, this is when the batteries cannot be fully charged before being discharged again the next day. This is a very big problem with lead-acid batteries and can promote significant plate degradation if repeatedly cycled in this manner. LiFePO4 batteries do not need to be fully charged regularly. In fact, it's possible to slightly improve overall life expectancy with a slight partial charge instead of a full charge.